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For right now, this is just a collection of links and resources I'm finding concerning digital music publishing.

Todo: Harry Fox Agency, CD-Baby, Tunecore etc.

Rights & Societies
AllTrack Global Performing Right Org. (PRO)
ASCAP Foundation
BMI (Broadcast Music, Inc.)
GMR (Global Music Rights) PRO
ISRC (Recording Industry Association of America, Inc.)
ISWC (International Standard Musical Work Code)
Pro Music Rights PRO
SESAC invitation only PRO!/
SoundExchange SoundExchange collects royalties for ALL sound recordings played on non-interactive digital radio
US Copyright Registration Portal
PRO means Performance Rights Organization. Generally for where music is being performed / played in a commercial venue.

Audio Fingerprint
Product name Front End Underlying tech Expert(s)
AdShare fast audio matching (FAM) USC Media Communications Laboratory[1]
Amazon Alexa Audio watermarking Mohamed Mansour[2]
Apple iTunes Shazam Avery Li-Chun Wang PDF
Facebook Rights Manager
HAAWK Rights Technologies
MIREX [3] ACRCloud MIR/MDL--PDF The International Music Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Laboratory (IMIRSEL)[4]
Picard[5] MusicBrainz[6] AcoustID - Chromaprint [7] Lukáš Lalinský[8]


The US Copyright Statute does not explicitly recognize a copyright that is vested in the performer for their work. Therefore as a matter of statutory law, a performer, being either an actor, dancer, sportsperson or musician cannot claim a separate copyright.
The 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in Garcia v. Google however found that the absence of a statutory provision conferring an independent copyright on the performance did not imply that performances were not entitled to a protection. The Court observed that if the originality threshold, as was enunciated by the SCOTUS in Feist was met, then such original performances be in musical, dramatic or other performances were entitled to copyright, if they were themselves not unauthorized or otherwise infringing. It is important to note that Court did not consider the fact that the performance of a work was itself a covered right under copyright to be repugnant with the conclusion that performers could enjoy copyright protection.


  1. "USC Media Communications Lab – MCL and AdShare Developed Fast Audio Matching Technology". USC Media Communications Lab. 2014-04-06. Retrieved 2019-10-27.
  2. Yuan-yen Tai (2019-03-28). "Audio Watermarking Algorithm Is First to Solve "Second-Screen Problem" in Real Time". Amazon Alexa Blogs.
  3. "MIREX Wiki". 2019-09-02. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
  4. Varvel, Virgil; Singh, Harsh. "Networked Environment for Music Analysis (NEMA) - Was International Music Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Laboratory (IMIRSEL)". GSLIS Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS) University of Illinois. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
  5. "MusicBrainz Picard". MusicBrainz Picard. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
  6. "The Open Music Encyclopedia". MusicBrainz. 2019-10-14. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
  7. "Chromaprint". AcoustID. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
  8. "How does Chromaprint work?". Lukáš Lalinský. 2011-01-18. Archived from the original on 2019-10-25. Retrieved 2019-10-25.